Ipv4 vs Ipv6 for Dummies


Q: What is IP protocol?
A: The Internet Protocol (IP) is the principal communications protocol in the Internet protocol suite for relaying datagrams across network boundaries. Its routing function enables internetworking, and essentially establishes the Internet.

Q: What is main function of IP protocol?
IP, as the primary protocol in the Internet layer of the Internet protocol suite, has the task of delivering packets from the source host to the destination host solely based on the IP addresses in the packet headers. An Ip adress is assigned for each device within Internet such as

Q: What is IPv6?
A: IPv6 is the sixth revision to the Internet Protocol and the successor to IPv4. It utilizes 128-bit addresses. I’ll explain why this is important in a moment.

Q: Why are we running out of IPv4 addresses?
A: IPv4 uses 32 bits for its Internet addresses. That means it can support 2^32 IP addresses in total — around 4.29 billion.

Q: How does IPv6 solve this problem?
A: As previously stated, IPv6 utilizes 128-bit Internet addresses. Therefore, it can support 2^128 Internet addresses — 340,282,366,920,938,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 of them to be exact.

Q: When will be the switch completed from IPv4 to IPv6?
A: The depletion of IPv4 addresses was predicted years ago, so the switch has been in progress for the last decade. However, IPv4 stacks will probably never be switched off completely.



Future: Internet of the Things (I)

Lately I’ve been reviewing the latest news about IoT; and at the beginning I read a lot to firstly understand the concepts.
The following is a brief compilation of basic concepts about the Internet of Things.

What do we understand for IoT?
The entire things will be integrated with Internet in any moment and any time.
A technical definition could be as “network of physical objects with integrated technology which allow communication with themselves and with the environment”.

When did it start?
The term Internet of Things was proposed by Kevin Ashton in 2009 via an article for the RFID Journal, “That ‘Internet of Things’ Things:

Today computers—and, therefore, the Internet—are almost wholly dependent on human beings for information. Nearly all of the roughly 50 petabytes (a petabyte is 1,024 terabytes) of data available on the Internet were first captured and created by human beings—by typing, pressing a record button, taking a digital picture, or scanning a bar code. Conventional diagrams of the Internet … leave out the most numerous and important routers of all – people. The problem is, people have limited time, attention and accuracy—all of which means they are not very good at capturing data about things in the real world. And that’s a big deal. We’re physical, and so is our environment … You can’t eat bits, burn them to stay warm or put them in your gas tank. Ideas and information are important, but things matter much more. Yet today’s information technology is so dependent on data originated by people that our computers know more about ideas than things. If we had computers that knew everything there was to know about things—using data they gathered without any help from us—we would be able to track and count everything, and greatly reduce waste, loss and cost. We would know when things needed replacing, repairing or recalling, and whether they were fresh or past their best. The Internet of Things has the potential to change the world, just as the Internet did. Maybe even more so.[17]
—Kevin Ashton, ‘That ‘Internet of Things’ Thing’, RFID Journal, July 22, 2009

What were the technical advances that are allowing the existence of IoT?

  1. Miniaturization of hardware components.
  2. Overcoming the limitation of mobile infrastructure.
  3. Proliferation of applications and services

SO, what is IoT?
IoT consists on the integration of sensors and devices into everyday objects that are connected to the Internet via wired and wireless networks.
Every objects

  • are capable of being connected and “manifest itself” in the Network
  • Could be a data source

How can such an ideal concept be realised?
RFID (Radio Frequency IDentification) is a storage system and remotely retrieving data using devices called tags, cards, RFID tags or transponders. The fundamental purpose of the RFID technology is to transmit the identity of an object (like a unique serial number) using radio waves. RFID technologies are grouped into so-called Auto ID (automatic identification, or auto ID).

RFID tags are small devices, similar to a sticker that can be attached or incorporated into a product, animal or person. Containing receptors to allow receiving and responding to requests by radio from an RFID transceiver. Passive tags require no internal power source but active tags do require some power supply.

The mode of operation of RFID systems is simple. The RFID tag containing identifying data of the object to which it is attached, generates an RF signal with data. This signal can be detected by an RFID reader, which is responsible for reading the information and pass it in digital format to the specific application that uses RFID.

How is a RFID system composed?

  • RFID tag or transponder: composed of an antenna, a transducer and an encapsulating material or chip. The purpose of the antenna is to allow the chip, which contains the information, transmitting the identification information of the label.
  • RFID reader or transceiver: composed of an antenna, a transceiver and decoder. The reader sends signals periodically to see if any tags in its vicinity. When picking up a signal from a tag (which contains the identification information of this), extracts the information and passes it to the data processing subsystem.
  • Data processing subsystem or RFID Middleware: provides a means of processing and storage of data.